We are all Khaled Said is a Facebook group which formed in the aftermath of Said's beating and death. [201][202], 29 June: Mohamed Morsi took a symbolic oath of office in Tahrir Square, affirming that the people are the source of power. [231] During the first three days of the protests there were clashes between the central security police and demonstrators, but on 28 January the police withdrew from all of Cairo. Cairo has been at the centre of the revolution; the largest protests were held in downtown Tahrir Square, considered the "protest movement's beating heart and most effective symbol". At least 25 people[141] were killed, and more than 200 wounded. [246] Bedouins in the Sinai Peninsula fought security forces for several weeks. [239] Some online activists called Suez Egypt's Sidi Bouzid (the Tunisian city where protests began). Bloggers and citizen journalists used Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, blogs and other media tools to report on the strike, alert their networks about police activity, organize legal protection and draw attention to their efforts. Journalism (2014): 1464884914545739. The SCAF issued an interim constitution,[175][176][177][178][179][180][181][182] giving itself the power to control the prime minister, legislation, the national budget and declarations of war without oversight, and chose a 100-member panel to draft a permanent constitution. In late 2010, about 40 percent of Egypt's population lived on the equivalent of roughly US$2 per day, with a large portion relying on subsidized goods. [337][338] This was a concern of the secular and youth movements, who wanted elections to be held later so they could catch up to the already-well-organized groups. Most causes of the 2011 Egyptian revolution against Mubarak also existed in 1952, when the Free Officers ousted King Farouk:[112] inherited power, corruption, under-development, unemployment, unfair distribution of wealth and the presence of Israel. Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali from power, protests against the Mubarak regime erupted on January 25, 2011. Copies of Sharp's list of 198 non-violent "weapons", translated into Arabic and not always attributed to him, were circulated in Tahrir Square during its occupation. [144], 28 November 2011 – 11 January 2012: Parliamentary elections, 17 December 2011: The Institute d'Egypte caught fire during clashes between protesters and Egyptian military; thousands of rare documents burned. National Police Day in Egypt Date in the current year: January 25, 2020 National Police Day is a professional holiday in Egypt observed annually on January 25. The Egyptian protests in Egypt were not centred around religion-based politics, but nationalism and social consciousness. In numerous trials defendants alleged that police tortured them during questioning. tahrir square, referendum, muslim brotherhood, january 25 revolution, hosni mubarak, elections, egypt, abdel fattah al-sisi Jan 23, 2014 CAIRO — As Egypt's interim president and ministers of defense and interior celebrated the third anniversary of the January 25 Revolution, countless authors and TV show hosts continued to smear the uprising that toppled Hosni Mubarak's dictatorship. 26 January 2011: Civil unrest in Suez and other areas throughout the country. [102] Protesters also demanded the resignation of the Minister of Interior, an end to State corruption, the end of emergency law and presidential term limits for the president. Participation was low with only 38.6% of registered voters participating[227] although this was higher than the 33% who voted in a referendum during Morsi's tenure. It marks the start of the revolution in 2011 that led to the resignation of General Mubarak. [260] By 1 February the protests left at least 125 people dead,[261] although Human Rights Watch said that UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay claimed that as many as 300 might have died in the unrest. Revolution Day January 25 - Egypt Revolution Day January 25 falls on January 25th each year and celebrates the revolution of 2011 started by a popular uprising against the government. Scottish poet Robert Burns is born in 1759. World leaders, including German Chancellor Angela Merkel and UK Prime Minister David Cameron, joined in praising the revolution. [121] Four important figures in the former regime were arrested that day: former interior minister Habib el-Adly, former minister of housing Ahmed Maghrabi, former tourism minister H.E. 1 August: Egyptian soldiers clashed with protesters, tearing down tents. Islamist organisations emerged with a greater freedom to operate. Facebook, Twitter and blogging helped spread the uprising. [363] Soldiers fired live ammunition and attacked from the rooftop with Molotov cocktails, rocks and other missiles. Calls were made for the council to provide details and more-specific timetables and deadlines. [39] El-Sisi went on to become Egypt's president by popular election in 2014. Hosni Mubarak became President of Egypt after the assassination of Anwar Sadat in 1981. The SCAF said that it would announce a 100-person assembly to write the country's new constitution. [238], Suez also saw violent protests. Key Egyptian military personnel include defense minister Mohamed Hussein Tantawi and armed forces chief of staff Sami Hafez Enan. From 2004 to 2008 the Mubarak government pursued economic reform to attract foreign investment and increase GDP, later postponing further reforms because of the Great Recession. The public holiday is a paid vacation for all civil servants in ministries and governmental institutions as well as the companies affiliated to the public, business and private sectors. During the year activists and observers circulated some amateur cellphone videos documenting the alleged abuse of citizens by security officials. [122], 2 March: The constitutional referendum was tentatively scheduled for 19 March 2011. This page contains a national calendar of all 2021 public holidays for Egypt. The former president, his two sons and a business tycoon were acquitted of corruption charges because the statute of limitations had expired. [322] On 24 May it was announced that Hosni Mubarak and his sons, Gamal and Alaa, would be for over the deaths of anti-government protesters during the revolution. There were few confrontations between demonstrators, since there were few Mubarak supporters (except for a few police-escorted convoys). The latest breaking news, comment and features from The Independent. Tens of thousands of demonstrators filled Tahrir Square,[134] in addition to demonstrations in Alexandria, Suez, Ismailia and Gharbeya, in the largest demonstrations since the ouster of the Mubarak regime. [297][298][299] Journalists were harassed by supporters of the regime, eliciting condemnation from the Committee to Protect Journalists, European countries and the United States. What: Egyptian Revolution Where: Egypt When: 25 January 2011 What happened? Radicals have a small threshold and are more likely to form new networks during an information blackout, influencing the people. The page called for protests on 25 January, later known as the "Day of Wrath". [183][198][199][200], 27–28 June: After the first Constituent Assembly of Egypt was declared unconstitutional and dissolved in April by Egypt's Supreme Administrative Court, the second constituent assembly met to establish a framework for drafting a post-Mubarak constitution. Although it was suspended for 18 months during the early 1980s,[55] it has otherwise continuously been in effect since Anwar Sadat's 1981 assassination. [46] He was in the 30th year of his reign when the Revolution of 2011 began. In 2014 in Upper Egypt, several newspapers reported that Upper Egypt wanted to secede from the rest of the country to improve its standard of living. Sadat neglected the modernization of Egypt, and his cronyism cost the country infrastructure industries which could generate new jobs. [317][318][319] Sharaf appointed former International Court of Justice judge Nabil Elaraby foreign minister and Mansour El Essawi as interior minister. [324] Mubarak's ouster was followed by allegations of corruption against other government officials and senior politicians. Feburary 2, 2011: Battle of the Camel. During the past few years, however, it has been overshadowed by a national holiday entitled 25 January Revolution Day. As the protests began, Google executive Wael Ghonim revealed that he was behind the account. [353][354] The Egyptian military numbers about 468,500 active personnel, plus a reserve of 479,000. That day, Prime Minister Ahmed Shafiq also said that 222 political prisoners would be released. Marks the day of the beginning of the 2011 Egyptian revolution. [143] Dissident journalist Hossam el-Hamalawy told Al Jazeera that Egyptians would begin a general strike because they "had enough" of the SCAF. Protesters were inspired by the successful uprising in … [164][165][166][167] The provision remains in effect until a new constitution is introduced, and could mean those detained could remain in jail for that long according to state-run Egy News. [55] Human-rights organizations estimate that in 2010, between 5,000 and 10,000 people were in long-term detention without charge or trial. Although opposition groups and international election-monitoring agencies charged that the elections were rigged, those agencies were not allowed to monitor elections. [320][321], On 16 April the Higher Administrative Court dissolved the former ruling National Democratic Party (NDP), ordering its funds and property to be transferred to the government. Many political movements, opposition parties and public figures supported the day of revolt, including Youth for Justice and Freedom, the Coalition of the Youth of the Revolution, the Popular Democratic Movement for Change, the Revolutionary Socialists and the National Association for Change. The only opposition presidential candidate in recent Egyptian history, Ayman Nour, was imprisoned before the 2005 elections. January 25 revolution Egypt’s Sisi rules out military action over GERD dispute with Ethiopia . [citation needed] All four Egyptian presidents since the 1950s have a military background. On 22 November 2012, Morsi issued a declaration immunizing his decrees from challenge and attempting to protect the work of the constituent assembly drafting the new constitution. The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights documented 30 cases of torture during the year 2009. He was later detained for a few days until the government was able to get a hold of certain information that they needed. 1 year ago . [250] The cases were inspired by (and began one month after) the acts of self-immolation in Tunisia which triggered the Tunisian revolution. 25 January Revolution Day 2021, 2022 and 2023 in Egypt 25 January Revolution Day commemorates the beginning of protests in 2011 that eventually led to the resignation of 30-year ruling Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak. Sign up to receive a weekly email update on forthcoming public holidays around the world in your inbox every Sunday. Although protests were scheduled for 30 June, opponents began gathering on the 28th. However, secular forces emerged from the revolution espousing principles shared with religious groups: freedom, social justice and dignity. [280] On 15 March, United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visited Egypt; she was the highest-ranking U.S. official to visit the country since the handover of power from Mubarak to the military. Revolution Day January 25 is a national holiday in Egypt that is observed on January 25th. By using these elements, editors shaped the news narrative in the first 18 days of the revolution. Over the next few days, Egyptians from all cross-sections of society would join the protests. The unconfirmed tally included 80 Human-Rights-Watch-verified deaths at two Cairo hospitals, 36 in Alexandria and 13 in Suez;[262][263][264] over 3,000 people were reported injured. [313][314][315] A spokesperson said, "When we talk about the slogans of the revolution – freedom, social justice, equality – all of these are in the Sharia (Islamic law). Morsi also issued a temporary presidential decree that raised his decisions over judicial review to enable the passing of the constitution. The attack resulted in 3 deaths and 600 injuries. When a permanent constitution is approved, a parliamentary election will be held within a month to replace the dissolved parliament. The public holiday is a paid vacation for all civil servants in ministries and governmental institutions as well as the companies affiliated to the public, business and private sectors. [68] Excessive force was often used by law-enforcement agencies against popular uprisings. Egypt, January 25 (2011). ... Egypt revolution's 2nd anniversary: Rallies, marches and street-cleaning drives. The list of charges, released by the public prosecutor, was "intentional murder, attempted killing of some demonstrators ... misuse of influence and deliberately wasting public funds and unlawfully making private financial gains and profits".[12]. [67] The Egyptian Organisation for Human Rights has documented 567 cases of torture, including 167 deaths, by police from 1993 to 2007. The 25 January was a longstanding national holiday in Egypt, yet in 2011 thousands of people gathered in downtown Cairo calling for a "day of rage". The French Revolution, considered the greatest revolution in history, achieved its goals after many years, and its ideas were considered so enlightening they spread across the European continent and throughout the world. [55] The Mubarak government has cited the threat of terrorism in extending emergency law,[56] claiming that opposition groups such as the Muslim Brotherhood could gain power in Egypt if the government did not forgo parliamentary elections and suppress the group through emergency law. 1 year ago . Marks the day when Jamahiriya security forces first used live ammunition against Benghazi demonstrators, sparking the civil war. Strikes by labour unions added to the pressure on government officials. ... 22:41 Clashes hit eastern Sudan for second consecutive day. Eyewitness reports suggested that the death toll was high, although confirmation was difficult due to a ban on media coverage in the area. The protests targeted the Mubarak government; while mostly non-violent, there were some reports of civilian and police casualties. [218], In April 2013 a youth group was created opposing Morsi and attempting to collect 22 million signatures by 30 June 2013 (the first anniversary of his presidency) on a petition demanding early presidential elections. In his view, a democracy which excluded all religion from public life (as in France) could succeed in Egypt but no genuine Arab democracy could disallow the participation of political Islam. [52] Although Gamal and Hosni Mubarak denied an inheritance of power, Gamal could be elected; with Hosni Mubarak's presidential term set to expire in 2010, speculation existed that Gamal would run as the NDP candidate in 2011. 8 April ("Cleansing Friday"): Tens of thousands of demonstrators again filled Tahrir Square, criticizing the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces for not following through on their demands: the resignation of remaining regime figures and the removal of Egypt's public prosecutor, due to the slow pace of investigations of corrupt former officials. Seven female protesters were forcibly subjected to virginity tests. Egyptian President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi declared three days of national mourning to mark the death of former... Egyptian Streets February 25, 2020. Reimbursing shop owners for losses during the curfew, 13. Protesters gather at … 23 July: Thousands of protesters attempted to march to the defense ministry after a speech by Mohammed Tantawi commemorating the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, but are met with counter-insurgents with sticks, stones and Molotov cocktails. Year. In a gesture to a new beginning, protesters cleaned up and renovated Tahrir Square (the epicenter of the demonstrations); however, many pledged to continue protesting until all demands had been met. It limits non-governmental political activity, including demonstrations, unapproved political organizations and unregistered financial donations. [229] The poll, which had a 47% turnout, and was held between 26 and 28 May 2014, resulted in a resounding victory for el-Sisi. Opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei arrived in Cairo amid reports of looting. [142] Solidarity protests were held in Alexandria and Suez. [361] On 19 November the military and police engaged in a continuous six-day battle with protestors in the streets of downtown Cairo and Alexandria, killing nearly 40 and injuring over 2,000. Millions of protesters from a range of socio-economic and religious backgrounds demanded the overthrow of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. Mubarak made his first address to the nation, pledging to form a new government. [243] Over 100,000 protesters gathered on 27 January in front of the city council in Zagazig. Key events in Egypt: 1952 to January 25, 2011 1952 Angered by the continuing domination of Egyptian affairs by former colonial ruler Great Britain and by economic inequalities in Egypt, a group of junior Egyptian military officers calling themselves the Free Officers stages a … A chronicle of the revolution that ended the three-decade-long presidency of Hosni Mubarak. Police Day in 2011 was the start of the revolution that lasted 18 days and led to General Hosni Mubarak being ousted as president, ending his 30-year rule of Egypt. Sadat undid Nasser's social reforms and dependence on the Soviet Union, predicting its collapse nearly two decades before it occurred. 11 February 2011 ("Friday of Departure"): Large protests continued in many cities, as Egyptians refused to accept Mubarak's concessions. "Infoboxes and cleanup tags: Artifacts of Wikipedia newsmaking". 10 February 2011: Mubarak addressed the Egyptian people amid speculation of a military coup. The military reportedly refused to follow orders to fire live ammunition, exercising overall restraint; there were no reports of major casualties. The British Oxford Economic Atlas of the World, 4th edition. On 7 February a complaint was filed against Habib al-Adly (interior minister until Mubarak dissolved the government during the protests' early days), accusing him of directing the attack. Egypt - Egypt - Unrest in 2011: January 25 Revolution: Days after a popular uprising in Tunisia, known as the Jasmine Revolution, forced Pres. 25 January Revolution - A total of 1,280 prisoners were released by a presidential decree on the occasion of the revolution commemoration and National Police Day The European Union Foreign Affairs Chief said, "I also reiterate my call upon the Egyptian authorities to urgently establish a constructive and peaceful way to respond to the legitimate aspirations of Egyptian citizens for democratic and socioeconomic reforms. The 25th of January marks the Egyptian … Political corruption in the Mubarak administration's Interior Ministry rose dramatically, due to increased control of the system necessary to sustain his presidency. His government received support from the West and aid from the United States by its suppression of Islamic militants and peace with Israel. [295] On 5 February, talks began between the government and opposition groups for a transitional period before elections. Read More . Opposition groups, including the Muslim Brotherhood (MB), repeated their demand that Mubarak resign; after the protests turned violent, the MB said that it was time for military intervention. [47], Mubarak's younger son was expected to succeed his father as the next president of Egypt in 2000. [333] Before the uprising, the best-organised and most-prominent opposition movements in the Arab world usually came from Islamist organisations with members who were motivated and ready to sacrifice. News. Six senior police officials were also acquitted for their role in the killing of demonstrators, due to lack of evidence. [168], 14 June: The Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court ruled that a law passed by Parliament in May, banning former regime figures from running for office, was unconstitutional; this ended a threat to Ahmed Shafik's candidacy for president during Egypt's 2012 presidential election. Hearns-Branaman, Jesse Owen (2012), 'The Egyptian Revolution did not take place: On live television coverage by Al Jazeera English'. How the January 25 Egyptian Revolution Was Organized. The Egyptian Revolution of 2011 was a movement, that followed a popular uprising that began on January 25. Elections were held in September 2011, with Liberty and Justice (the Muslim Brotherhood party) winning 48.5 percent of the vote. It marks the start of the revolution in 2011 that led to the resignation of General Mubarak. He wielded increasing power as NDP deputy secretary general and chair of the party's policy committee. Also known as January's Revolution Day. Solidarity demonstrations for the protesters were held worldwide. In the northern city of Mansoura, there were daily protests against the Mubarak regime beginning on 25 January; two days later, the city was called a "war zone". Central Security Forces used tear gas to control the situation. The party was founded in 1996 by activists who split from the Muslim Brotherhood and sought to create a tolerant, liberal Islamic movement, but its four attempts to register as an official party were rejected. ... to find out about the first "martyrs" of Egypt's revolution. [185][186][187][188][189][190][191], 24 June: Muslim Brotherhood candidate Mohamed Morsi, the first Islamist elected head of an Arab state, is declared the winner of the presidential election by the Egyptian electoral commission. During the early morning hours of 28 January the Mubarak regime shut down internet and cell phone networks in the whole country. 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